Triggers in SQL server |Mt Buzzer

Triggers in SQL server

Triggers are a unique kind of stored procedure that can be written to act on a table activity, for example, an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE. In the event that they can possibly lead to performance issues, for example, blocking and, if they are not written accurately, you could be losing information.

Triggers are consequently executed when a DDL or DML statement cooperated with the trigger is executed. DML Triggers are used to assess a great many data control using DML articulations. We have two sorts of DML triggers.

Triggers are database activities which are naturally performed when an activity, for example, Insert, Update or Delete is performed on a Table or a View in a database. Triggers are related to the Table or View straightforwardly i.e. each table has its own particular Triggers.

A trigger is a unique kind of stored procedure that executes in light of certain activity on the table like inclusion, erasure or updating of information. It is a database question which is bound to a table and is executed consequently. You can't expressly invoke triggers. The best way to do this is by playing out the required action on the table that they are assigned to.


Triggers are ordinarily used to perform auditing activities, to keep up table trustworthiness instead of native limitations, for example, foreign keys and check imperatives, and to perform other post DML handling. Triggers work under the extent of an exchange so if a table were refreshed, for example, the refresh would happen and the trigger would fire. While the trigger is grinding away, the exchange would not be submitted until the point that the trigger finished (or moved back on account of disappointment). In the event that a considerable measure of preparing is being done in the trigger, locks will be held until the point when the trigger finishes. This is an important point to note: Triggers expand the life of an exchange. Additionally, because of their stealthiest, they can make investigating information issues troublesome and dull.

The use of triggers to achieve basic honesty checking is probably not a smart thought since they do expand exchange life. In addition, if there is a trustworthiness infringement, a ROLLBACK on any changed information should happen which can conceivably cause an execution bottleneck as the application sits tight for the rollback to finish. Conversely, local limitations do their checks preceding any alteration and, therefore, don't make a ROLLBACK happen if an infringement happens.

At the point when triggers fire, there are virtual tables that hold the estimations of the information when the change. These tables are called embedded and erased. While getting to these virtual tables inside trigger code, you should chip away at their information as a set. One basic mix-up I see again and again and over in trigger code: a trigger is written with the suspicion it will dependably take a shot at a single row at any given moment. This isn't the situation.

Why and when to use a trigger?

We use a trigger when we need some occasion to happen consequently in certain describe situations.


You have a table that changes as often as possible, now you need to know how frequently and when these changes can occur.

All things considered, you can make a trigger that will embed the desired information into another table at whatever point any adjustment in the fundamental table happens.

Types of Triggers:

In SQL Server we can create the following 3 types of triggers:

Data Definition Language (DDL) triggers
Data Manipulation Language (DML) triggers
Logon triggers

In SQL Server we can make the accompanying 3 kinds of triggers: 

DDL Triggers:

In SQL Server we can make triggers on DDL explanations (like CREATE, ALTER and DROP) and certain framework characterized Stored Procedures that does DDL-like operations.  This kind of trigger is executed against DDL statements like Delete Table, Create Table or modified Table. DDL

Triggers are always After Triggers.

DML Triggers: 

In SQL Server we can create triggers on DML statements (like INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE) and Stored Procedures that do DML-like operations. DML Triggers are of two types.

In SQL Server we can make triggers on DML statements (like INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE) and Stored Procedures that do DML-like operations. There are two types of DML triggers which are explained as below

After trigger (use AFTER CLAUSE):

The After trigger (use AFTER CLAUSE) fires after SQL Server completes the execution of the activity effectively that terminated it.


If you insert a record/row into a table then the trigger related/correlated with the embed occasion on this table will fire simply after the column passes every one of the requirements, for example, primary key imperative and a few principles. On the off chance that the record/row inclusion falls flat, SQL Server won't fire the After Trigger.

AFTER TRIGGERS can be classified further into three types as:


Instead of Trigger (use INSTEAD OF CLAUSE):

The Instead of Trigger (use INSTEAD OF CLAUSE) fires before SQL Server begins the execution of the action that fired it. This is various from the AFTER trigger that fires after the action that caused it to fire. We can have an INSTEAD OF insert/update/delete trigger on a table that smoothly executed but does not contain the actual insert/update/delete to the table. Whenever row insertion fails, SQL Server will fire the Instead of Trigger.


If you insert a record/row into a table then the trigger related/associated with the insert event on this table will fire before the row passes all the rules, for example, primary key constraint and some rules. If the record/row insertion fails, SQL Server will fire the Instead of Trigger.

INSTEAD OF TRIGGERS can be classified further into three types as:


Logon Triggers:

Logon triggers are an uncommon sort of triggers that fire when a LOGON occasion of SQL Server is raised. This occasion is raised when a client session is being built up with SQL Server that is made after the confirmation stage completes however before the client session is really settled.

Subsequently, all messages that we characterize in the trigger, for example, mistake messages, will be diverted to the SQL Server blunder log. Logon triggers don't fire if validation fizzles. We can utilize these triggers to review and control server sessions, for example, to track login action or point of confinement the number of sessions for a particular login.

This type of trigger is fired against a LOGON event before a user session is established to the SQL Server.


The following is the very easy and useful syntax of logon triggers:

CREATE TRIGGER trigger Name ON a table 
AFTER INSERT |After delete |After Update
INSERT INTO dbo.UserHistory

Insert Trigger:

At whatever point a row is embedded in the Customers Table, the accompanying trigger will be executed. The recently embedded record is accessible in the INSERTED table.

Update Trigger:

At whatever point a row is refreshed in the Customers Table, the accompanying trigger will be executed. The updated record is accessible in the INSERTED table. In order to know which column is updated, you will need to use UPDATE function and pass the Column name of the Table to it.
The UPDATE command will return TRUE for a Column if its esteem was updated else it will return false. At last in view of which column of the record has been refreshed a record (containing the Customer ID and the proper activity) is embedded in the Customer Logs tab.

Delete Trigger:

At whatever point a line is erased in the Customers Table, the accompanying trigger will be executed. The deleted record is accessible in the DELETED table.

The issue with triggers is that they can't be "seen." It is anything but difficult to see table connections, requirements, and files in the database. On the customer application side, it is likewise easy to investigate the code. Then again, triggers are programmed programs characterized in the database that executes in the background as a major aspect that terminated them. It is difficult to take after their rationale and in time, it is anything but difficult to disregard the triggers in SQL Server, particularly on the off chance that they are not all around reported.

Here are some trigger design tips to keep in mind:

Avoid using nested triggers:

As a matter of course, if a trigger is changing different tables, the triggers pronounced for these tables are not let go. The "permit settled triggers" server choice sets databases to have the contrary conduct. Triggers are settled when a trigger plays out an activity that starts another trigger, which can start another trigger et cetera. Triggers can be settled up to 32 levels. It is exceptionally hard to take after the rationale of settled triggers and they can influence execution.

Avoid using  recursive  triggers:

There are two types of recursion:

Direct recursion:

It happens when a trigger flames and plays out an activity that makes a similar trigger fire once more. You can keep that from occurring by setting the "recursive trigger" database choice to OFF.

Indirect recursion:

It happens when a trigger flames and plays out an activity that makes a trigger on another table fire. This second trigger makes a refresh happen on the first table, which makes the first trigger fire once more. This can be counteracted with the "settled triggers" server choice.

Note that INSTEAD OF triggers usually needs to perform no less than one SQL order (UPDATE/INSERT/DELETE) as they are executed, rather than the summon that let go them. You need to outline them deliberately remembering forthcoming construction changes. At times you basically need to hard code the field rundown and make sure to transform it later on as required. For instance, in the event that you need to embed a line into a table with a personality segment, you can't simply insert into <table> select * from <another table>.

For this situation, you need to express all the required fields, with the exception of the one that holds the identity values.

Some differences between triggers and non-trigger stored procedures:

A non-trigger stored procedure is like a program that has to be invoked explicitly either from code or from a scheduler or from a batch job, etc. to do its work, whereas a trigger is a special type of stored procedure that fires as a response to an event rather than is directly executed by the user. The event may be a change of data in a data column for example.

Triggers have types. DDL Triggers and DML Triggers (of types: INSTEAD OF, for, and AFTER)
Non-Trigger Stored procedures can reference any type of object, however, to reference a view, you must use INSTEAD OF triggers.

In SQL Server, you can have any number of non-trigger stored procedures but only one INSTEAD OF trigger per table.

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